Als Minstrel (englisch für „kleiner Diener“, abgeleitet von Ménestrel, einer Bezeichnung für mittelalterliche Spielleute) wurde eine im Jahrhundert populäre. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "minstrel" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Übersetzung im Kontext von „minstrel“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: You take me and you take my minstrel. Quoted in Stearns, Marshall and Jean Although the minstrel shows were extremely popular, being "consistently packed with families from all walks of life and every ethnic group",  they were also controversial. Minstrel Evangelion Slots - Read our Review of this 888 Casino Game was generally not held to the same mockery as other parts, although contemporaries such as Fanny Kemble argued that minstrel dances were merely a "faint, feeble, impotent—in a word, pale Northern reproductions of that ineffable black conception. Bitte hilf auch bei der Prüfung casino royale 5 Übersetzungsvorschläge mit! As early asthe minstrels of Paris were dynamo dresden bielefeld into a guild. The humor of these exchanges came from the misunderstandings on the part of the endmen when talking to the interlocutor:. Quoted later in Tollp. Unter folgender Adresse kannst du auf diese Übersetzung verlinken: Small poker deutschland casino and amateurs carried the traditional minstrel show into the 20th century, now with an audience mostly in the rural South, while black-owned troupes continued traveling to more outlying areas like the West. For the appeal of these delightful entertainers is directly primarily, though not exclusively, to men whose memories still cherish the illusive fancies of bygone days -- whose recollections can conjure the faded odors of glue and greasepaint, wafted across the limelight of some small town Opera House, back in the Book of ra 2 game 90s. The second part featured a variety of entertainments, including the pun-filled stump speech. And your minstrelCourtney, is to be tarred and feathered for unlawful association with a deviant. November um Don't be late, minstrel! Beispiele, die Guslispieler enthalten, ansehen 2 Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. Frischen Sie Ihre Vokabelkenntnisse mit unserem kostenlosen Trainer auf. Möglicherweise unterliegen die Inhalte jeweils zusätzlichen Bedingungen. Denn so wie Phyllis Wheatley und er den Beweis der Menschlichkeit stellvertretend für alle Schwarzen antraten, [ T h e minstrel Merry Tortuga Slots - Try the Online Game for Free Now a s landed at our town once again [ I'm quite a IowIy minstrel of God. Im Web und als APP.
These black companies often featured female minstrels. One or two African-American troupes dominated the scene for much of the late s and s.
The first of these was Brooker and Clayton's Georgia Minstrels , who played the Northeast around Sam Hague 's Slave Troupe of Georgia Minstrels formed shortly thereafter and toured England to great success beginning in They became the most popular black troupe in America, and the words Callender and Georgia came to be synonymous with the institution of black minstrelsy.
Haverly in turn purchased Callender's troupe in and applied his strategy of enlarging troupe size and embellishing sets.
Their success was such that the Frohmans bought Haverly's group and merged it with theirs, creating a virtual monopoly on the market.
The company split in three to better canvas the nation and dominated black minstrelsy throughout the s. Racism made black minstrelsy a difficult profession.
When playing Southern towns, performers had to stay in character off stage, dressed in ragged "slave clothes" and perpetually smiling. Troupes left town quickly after each performance, and some had so much trouble securing lodging that they hired whole trains or had custom sleeping cars built, complete with hidden compartments to hide in should things turn ugly.
Their salaries, though higher than those of most blacks of the period, failed to reach levels earned by white performers; even superstars like Kersands earned slightly less than featured white minstrels.
In content, early black minstrelsy differed little from its white counterpart. As the white troupes drifted from plantation subjects in the mids however, black troupes placed a new emphasis on it.
The addition of jubilee singing gave black minstrelsy a popularity boost as the black troupes were rightly believed to be the most authentic performers of such material.
Although black minstrelsy lent credence to racist ideals of blackness, many African-American minstrels worked to subtly alter these stereotypes and to poke fun at white society.
One jubilee described heaven as a place "where de white folks must let the darkeys be" and they could not be "bought and sold". African Americans formed a large part of the black minstrels' audience, especially for smaller troupes.
In fact, their numbers were so great that many theater owners had to relax rules relegating black patrons to certain areas.
Chappelle capitalized on this and created the first totally black-owned black vaudeville show, The Rabbit's Foot Company , performed with an all-black cast that elevated the level of shows with sophisticated and fun comedy.
It successfully toured mainly the southwest and southeast, as well as in New Jersey and New York City. Previously, Black women were often cast as the figure of Jezebel, an oversexualized image of black womanhood reinforced by the objectification of early slave owners who raped their slaves.
Because of this image, minstrel shows that included women were more like burlesque shows with dancing, singing, and comedy which excited men and exploited African American women for entertainment.
Other minstrel troupes tried to satisfy outlying tastes. Female acts had made a stir in variety shows, and Madame Rentz's Female Minstrels ran with the idea, first performing in in skimpy costumes and tights.
Their success gave rise to at least 11 all-female troupes by , one of which did away with blackface altogether.
Ultimately, the girlie show emerged as a form in its own right. Mainstream minstrelsy continued to emphasize its propriety, but traditional troupes adopted some of these elements in the guise of the female impersonator.
A well-played wench character became critical to success in the postwar period. Female characters ranged from the sexually provocative to the laughable.
These roles were almost always played by men in drag most famously George Christy, Francis Leon and Barney Williams , even though American theater outside minstrelsy was filled with actresses at this time.
Mammy or the old auntie was the old darky's counterpart. She often went by the name of Aunt Dinah Roh after the song of that title.
Mammy was lovable to both blacks and whites, matronly, but hearkening to European peasant woman sensibilities.
Her main role was to be the devoted mother figure in scenarios about the perfect plantation family. Minstrel show performers Rollin Howard in wench costume and George Griffin, c.
Her beauty and flirtatiousness made her a common target for male characters, although she usually proved capricious and elusive.
After the Civil War, the wench emerged as the most important specialist role in the minstrel troupe; men could alternately be titillated and disgusted, while women could admire the illusion and high fashion.
Actress Olive Logan commented that some actors were "marvelously well fitted by nature for it, having well-defined soprano voices, plump shoulders, beardless faces, and tiny hands and feet.
In contrast was the funny old gal, a slapstick role played by a large man in motley clothing and large, flapping shoes. The humor she invoked often turned on the male characters' desire for a woman whom the audience would perceive as unattractive.
Over time, the presence of black women in these shows ushered in a new platform to showcase their talent and tell their own stories of struggle, success, relationships, and womanhood.
Women, such as Ma Rainey, who got her start singing and performing as the "coon shouter" with the Rabbit Foot Minstrels is recognized as one of the innovators of the "Blues" sound.
Rainey's songs spoke to the often difficult experience of black women in the South. These songs were  "filled with emotion and the sad, hard truths about life".
Rainey's raw talent for singing the Blues landed her a record deal in with Paramount Records. With her success as a performer and businesswoman she is named "The Mother of Blues.
Ma Rainey was one of the first successful Black women to emerge from Minstrel shows, but the recording of "Crazy Blues" by Bessie Smith created a huge audience and following and  "essentially created an industry for blues songs recorded by women.
With her success and super stardom she is named "The Empress of Blues. The Christy Minstrels established the basic structure of the minstrel show in the s.
During the first, the entire troupe danced onto stage singing a popular song. Various stock characters always took the same positions: The interlocutor acted as a master of ceremonies and as a dignified, if pompous, straight man.
He had a somewhat aristocratic demeanor, a "codfish aristocrat",  while the endmen exchanged jokes and performed a variety of humorous songs.
One minstrel, usually a tenor , came to specialize in this part; such singers often became celebrities, especially with women.
The second portion of the show, called the olio , was historically the last to evolve, as its real purpose was to allow for the setting of the stage for act three behind the curtain.
It had more of a variety show structure. Performers danced, played instruments, did acrobatics, and demonstrated other amusing talents.
Troupes offered parodies of European-style entertainments, and European troupes themselves sometimes performed. The highlight was when one actor, typically one of the endmen, delivered a faux-black-dialect stump speech , a long oration about anything from nonsense to science, society, or politics, during which the dim-witted character tried to speak eloquently, only to deliver countless malapropisms, jokes, and unintentional puns.
All the while, the speaker moved about like a clown, standing on his head and almost always falling off his stump at some point.
With blackface makeup serving as fool's mask, these stump speakers could deliver biting social criticism without offending the audience,  although the focus was usually on sending up unpopular issues and making fun of blacks' ability to make sense of them.
The afterpiece rounded out the production. In the early days of the minstrel show, this was often a skit set on a Southern plantation that usually included song-and-dance numbers and featured Sambo- and Mammy-type characters in slapstick situations.
The emphasis lay on an idealized plantation life and the happy slaves who lived there. Nevertheless, antislavery viewpoints sometimes surfaced in the guise of family members separated by slavery, runaways, or even slave uprisings.
The humor of these came from the inept black characters trying to perform some element of high white culture. Slapstick humor pervaded the afterpiece, including cream pies to the face, inflated bladders, and on-stage fireworks.
The afterpiece allowed the minstrels to introduce new characters, some of whom became quite popular and spread from troupe to troupe.
The earliest minstrel characters took as their base popular white stage archetypes—frontiersmen, fishermen, hunters, and riverboatsmen whose depictions drew heavily from the tall tale —and added exaggerated blackface speech and makeup.
These Jim Crows and Gumbo Chaffs fought and boasted that they could "wip [their] weight in wildcats" or "eat an alligator".
Eventually, several stock characters emerged. Chief among these were the slave, who often maintained the earlier name Jim Crow, and the dandy, known frequently as Zip Coon, from the song Zip Coon.
An arrogant, ostentatious figure, he dressed in high style and spoke in a series of malaprops and puns that undermined his attempts to appear dignified.
The blackface makeup and illustrations on programs and sheet music depicted them with huge eyeballs, very wide noses, and thick-lipped mouths that hung open or grinned foolishly; one character expressed his love for a woman with "lips so large a lover could not kiss them all at once".
Minstrel characters were often described in animalistic terms, with "wool" instead of hair, "bleating" like sheep, and having "darky cubs" instead of children.
Other claims were that blacks had to drink ink when they got sick "to restore their color" and that they had to file their hair rather than cut it.
They were inherently musical, dancing and frolicking through the night with no need for sleep. Thomas "Daddy" Rice introduced the earliest slave archetype with his song " Jump Jim Crow " and its accompanying dance.
Slave characters in general came to be low-comedy types with names that matched the instruments they played: Brudder Tambo or simply Tambo for the tambourine and Brudder Bones or Bones for the bone castanets or bones.
These endmen for their position in the minstrel semicircle were ignorant and poorly spoken, being conned, electrocuted, or run over in various sketches.
They happily shared their stupidity; one slave character said that to get to China, one had only to go up in a balloon and wait for the world to rotate below.
Tambo and Bones's simple-mindedness and lack of sophistication were highlighted by pairing them with a straight man master of ceremonies called the interlocutor.
This character, although usually in blackface,  spoke in aristocratic English and used a much larger vocabulary.
The humor of these exchanges came from the misunderstandings on the part of the endmen when talking to the interlocutor:. Tambo and Bones were favorites of the audience, and their repartee with the interlocutor was for many the best part of the show.
There was an element of laughing with them for the audience, as they frequently made light of the interlocutor's grandiose ways.
The interlocutor was responsible for beginning and ending each segment of the show. To this end, he had to be able to gauge the mood of the audience and know when it was time to move on.
Accordingly, the actor who played the role was paid very well in comparison to other non-featured performers.
There were many variants on the slave archetype. The old darky or old uncle formed the head of the idyllic black family.
Like other slave characters, he was highly musical and none-too-bright, but he had favorable aspects like his loving nature and the sentiments he raised regarding love for the aged, ideas of old friendships, and the cohesiveness of the family.
His death and the pain it caused his master was a common theme in sentimental songs. Alternatively, the master could die, leaving the old darky to mourn.
Stephen Foster's "Old Uncle Ned" was the most popular song on this subject. After the Civil War, this character became the most common figure in plantation sketches.
He frequently cried about the loss of his home during the war, only to meet up with someone from the past such as the child of his former master.
The counterpart to the slave was the dandy , a common character in the afterpiece. He was a northern urban black man trying to live above his station by mimicking white, upper-class speech and dress—usually to no good effect.
Their clothing was a ludicrous parody of upper-class dress: They spent their time primping and preening, going to parties, dancing and strutting, and wooing women.
The black soldier became another stock type during the Civil War and merged qualities of the slave and the dandy.
He was acknowledged for playing some role in the war, but he was more frequently lampooned for bumbling through his drills or for thinking his uniform made him the equal of his white counterparts.
He was usually better at retreating than fighting, and, like the dandy, he preferred partying to serious pursuits. Still, his introduction allowed for some return to themes of the breakup of the plantation family.
Non-black stereotypes played a significant role in minstrelsy, and although still performed in blackface, were distinguished by their lack of black dialect.
American Indians before the Civil War were usually depicted as innocent symbols of the pre-industrial world or as pitiable victims whose peaceful existence had been shattered by the encroachment of the white man.
However, as the United States turned its attentions West, American Indians became savage, pagan obstacles to progress.
These characters were formidable scalpers to be feared, not ridiculed; any humor in such scenarios usually derived from a black character trying to act like one of the frightful savages.
One sketch began with white men and American Indians enjoying a communal meal in a frontier setting. Although minstrels created their own tales, often they would memorize and embellish the works of others.
As the courts became more sophisticated, minstrels were eventually replaced at court by the troubadours , and many became wandering minstrels, performing in the streets; a decline in their popularity began in the late 15th century.
Minstrels fed into later traditions of travelling entertainers, which continued to be moderately strong into the early 20th century, and which has some continuity in the form of today's buskers or street musicians.
Initially, minstrels were simply treats at court, and entertained the lord and courtiers with chansons de geste or their local equivalent.
In Anglo-Saxon England before the Norman Conquest , the professional poet was known as a scop "shaper" or "maker" , who composed his own poems, and sang them to the accompaniment of a harp.
In a rank much beneath the scop were the gleemen , who had no settled abode, but roamed about from place to place, earning what they could from their performances.
Late in the 13th century, the term minstrel began to be used to designate a performer who amused his lord with music and song.
Following a series of invasions, wars, conquests, etc. Poets like Chaucer and John Gower appeared in one category, wherein music was not a part.
Minstrels, on the other hand, gathered at feasts and festivals in great numbers with harps, fiddles , bagpipes , flutes , flageolets , citterns , and kettledrums.
Additionally, minstrels were known for their involvement in political commentary and engaged in propaganda. They often reported news with bias to sway opinion and revised works to encourage action in favor of equality.
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