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Who Played Hook

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Who Played Hook Finden Sie Hook [Collector's Edition] in unserem vielfältigen who goes back to never land after his children are kidnapped by Hook played by. And huge part of the film's appeal wasn't just the late Robin William's performance as Peter Pan, but also the performances by the kids who played the Lost Boys. Peter Pan hat Nimmerland schon lange verlassen. Als Familienvater und Anwalt lebt er ein ruhiges Leben und hat vergessen, wer er einmal war. Eines Tages entführt Captain Hook seine beiden Kinder, um sich an ihm zu rächen. Leider weiß Peter nicht.

Who Played Hook Wird oft zusammen gekauft

Peter Pan hat Nimmerland schon lange verlassen. Als Familienvater und Anwalt lebt er ein ruhiges Leben und hat vergessen, wer er einmal war. Eines Tages entführt Captain Hook seine beiden Kinder, um sich an ihm zu rächen. Leider weiß Peter nicht. Hook ist ein US-amerikanischer Fantasyfilm von Steven Spielberg aus dem Jahr Der Film handelt von einer Fortsetzung der bekannten Ereignisse aus. Bis zu jenem Tage, an dem Kapitän Hook (Dustin Hoffman), der alte Erzfeind, who goes back to never land after his children are kidnapped by Hook played by​. Finden Sie Hook [Collector's Edition] in unserem vielfältigen who goes back to never land after his children are kidnapped by Hook played by. Dublin actress Hazel Doupe, 14, who plays Lucy and becomes Wendy by a heart surgeon played by Stanley Tucci, who doubles as Hook. Das redaktionelle Stockfoto Ron Moody who played Captain Hook und weitere Fotos finden Sie in der Shutterstock-Kollektion zur redaktionellen. Pan) by kidnapping his kids, and eventually attempts to get his kids to like him. He was portrayed by Dustin Hoffman, who also played Mumbles in Dick Tracy.

Who Played Hook

Hook ist ein US-amerikanischer Fantasyfilm von Steven Spielberg aus dem Jahr Der Film handelt von einer Fortsetzung der bekannten Ereignisse aus. Finden Sie Hook [Collector's Edition] in unserem vielfältigen who goes back to never land after his children are kidnapped by Hook played by. Captain James Hook is the titular main antagonist in the film Hook. He was portrayed by Dustin Hoffman, who also played Mumbles in Dick Tracy and.

Who Played Hook - Hinweise und Aktionen

Top reviews Most recent Top reviews. Unlimited One-Day Delivery and more. The score is very much like E. Much of what is known of Hooke's early life comes from an autobiography that he commenced Www.Stargames.Coms but never completed. Favourite Classics. Prostitute Beverly Polcyn The boys mock Peter at first, but eventually recognize him and Spiele Kostenlos Jetzt Peter while encouraging him to use his imagination to restore some of his abilities, much to Rufio's annoyance. Never Never Land.

Who Played Hook Contribute to This Page Video

What The Cast Of Hook Looks Like Today Even a documentary all about the reason its director doesn't talk much about it would have pleased me as it is a little more left field than Moneybookers Ltd classic he makes. Format: DVD. Amazon Advertising Kunden Casinos In Nrw, gewinnen und binden. He could let off the slightest look and make me laugh. One person found this helpful. We will collect the Import Fees Deposit at the time of your purchase and use it to cover applicable taxes and duties on import. Cookies akzeptieren Cookie-Einstellungen anpassen. I loved this film when I was Diskothek Casino Baden Baden and nothing has changed about that, Sizzling Hot Deluxe Indir though I'm now 22! Wie Bwin Online Casino Auszahlung immer mehr zum "Erwachsenen" wird. We don't Leverkusen Gladbach actors like Robin anymore and I'll cherish everything he did. I still remember going into the cinema as a kid and being drawn in by the magical world of Peter Pan. The film is non stop action full of colour humour and even the odd death the film was directed Roulette Tableau Steven Spielberg Spider Solitaire Deutsch stars many big names including Julia Roberts as tinkerbell bob hoskins as smee the film is very entertaining it has a great music score and a lovely ending recommended. Entdecken Sie jetzt alle Amazon Prime-Vorteile.

Shadow Kim O'Kelley Prostitute Beverly Polcyn Prostitute Randi Cee Prostitute David Crosby Tickles Nick Tate Noodler Tony Burton Bill Jukes Glenn Close Gutless Nick Ullett Pirate Jailer Matthew Van Ginkel Baby Peter Banning Ray Tveden Man in Stands Kim Robillard Toothless Cripple Michael Runyard Growling Pirate Rest of cast listed alphabetically: Robert Amico Pirate uncredited Paul Babb Pirate uncredited Jeff Bornstein Pirate uncredited Jimmy Buffett Shoe-Stealing Pirate uncredited Lonnie Burr Pegleg uncredited G.

Larry Butler Baseball Game Attendee uncredited Mickey Cassidy Pirate uncredited Walter DuRant Parent uncredited Carrie Fisher Woman Kissing on Bridge uncredited Russell Gannon Blacksmith uncredited Robert Gatewood Pirate uncredited Tom Hodgins Pirate uncredited Rick Kleber Pirate uncredited Jeff Kroeger Lost Boy uncredited David Lea Pirate uncredited George Lucas Man Kissing on Bridge uncredited Bruce Mahler Pirate uncredited Bruce Mercury The Drunk Pirate uncredited John Michael Doctor uncredited Neil Riddaway Pirate uncredited Casey Slade Pirate uncredited Lisa Wilhoit Baby Tinkerbell uncredited Mark Winn Hart Kathleen Kennedy Robinette Kim Santantonio Cetrone Donald E.

Chafey Jr. Dorrance Paul Ecker Eyth Jack Forwalter Gabrielli Scott Garrett Greene III Isbell Sr. Roger M. Lay Jr.

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Rogers Catherine Rowe Welch Craig Woods Woods John Roesch Peter tells Wendy that his adventures are not yet over as he and his family watch Tootles fly off to Neverland.

In addition, a number of celebrities and family members made brief credited and uncredited cameos in the film: [7] musicians David Crosby and Jimmy Buffett , as well as Oscar-nominated actress Glenn Close and former NFL player Tony Burton , appear as members of Hook's pirate crew; two major Star Wars associates, George Lucas and Carrie Fisher , play the kissing couple sprinkled with pixie dust ; two of Hoffman's children, Jacob and Rebecca, both under years-old during filming, briefly appeared in scenes in the "normal" world; and screenwriter Jim Hart's year-old son Jake, who years earlier inspired his father with the question "What if Peter Pan grew up?

Spielberg found a close personal connection to Peter Pan's story from his own childhood. The troubled relationship between Peter and Jack in the film echoed Spielberg's relationship with his own father.

Previous Spielberg films that explored a dysfunctional father-son relationship included E. Peter's "quest for success" paralleled Spielberg starting out as a film director and transforming into a Hollywood business magnate.

They are so self-involved with work and success and arriving at the next plateau that children and family almost become incidental. I have even experienced it myself when I have been on a very tough shoot and I've not seen my kids except on weekends.

They ask for my time and I can't give it to them because I'm working. He feels that Peter's "enduring quality" in the storyline is simply to fly.

Before I saw Superman, before I saw Batman, and of course before I saw any superheroes , my first memory of anybody flying is in Peter Pan. The genesis of the film started when Spielberg's mother often read him Peter and Wendy as a bedtime story.

He explained in "When I was 11 years old I actually directed the story during a school production. I have always felt like Peter Pan.

I still feel like Peter Pan. It has been very hard for me to grow up, I'm a victim of the Peter Pan syndrome. In the early s, Spielberg began to develop a film with Walt Disney Pictures that would have closely followed the storyline of the silent film and animated film.

Hart wrote the first script with Dustin Hoffman already cast as Captain Hook. Elliot Scott had been hired as production designer.

I wanted to be home as a dad. Meanwhile, Paramount and Hart moved forward on production with Nick Castle as director. Hart began to work on a new storyline when his son, Jake, showed his family a drawing.

So I went, 'Wow. Hook is not dead. The crocodile is. We've all been fooled'. In our family was having dinner and Jake said, 'Daddy, did Peter Pan ever grow up?

And Jake said, 'But what if he did? I patterned him after several of my friends on Wall Street , where the pirates wear three-piece suits and ride in limos.

Robin Williams signed on, but he and Hoffman had creative differences with Castle. Fisher went uncredited. Hidden hydraulics were installed to rock the set-piece to simulate a swaying ship, but the filmmakers found the movement distracted the dialogue, so the idea was dropped.

Stage 27 housed the full-sized Jolly Roger and the surrounding Pirate Wharf. This marked the beginning of Tony Swatton 's career, as he was asked to make weaponry for the film.

Spielberg brought on John Napier as a "visual consultant", having been impressed with his work on Cats. Spielberg explained, "It was all my fault.

I began to work at a slower pace than I usually do. Spielberg's on-set relationship with Julia Roberts was troubled, and he later admitted in an interview with 60 Minutes , "It was an unfortunate time for us to work together.

The film score was composed and conducted by John Williams. He was brought in at an early stage when Spielberg was considering making the film as a musical.

Accordingly, he wrote around eight songs for the project at this stage. The idea was later abandoned. Most of his song ideas were incorporated into the instrumental score, though two songs survive as songs in the finished film: "We Don't Wanna Grow Up" and "When You're Alone", both with lyrics by Leslie Bricusse.

The original issue was released by Epic Records. It contains almost the complete score with alternates and unused material. It also contains liner notes that explain the film's production and score recording.

A video game based on the film and bearing the same name was released for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System in The game was released for additional game consoles in Spielberg, Williams, and Hoffman did not take salaries for the film.

The site's consensus states: "The look of Hook is lively indeed but Steven Spielberg directs on autopilot here, giving in too quickly to his sentimental, syrupy qualities.

Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times wrote that:. The sad thing about the screenplay for Hook is that it's so correctly titled: This whole construction is really nothing more than a hook on which to hang a new version of the Peter Pan story.

No effort is made to involve Peter's magic in the changed world he now inhabits, and little thought has been given to Captain Hook's extraordinary persistence in wanting to revisit the events of the past.

The failure in Hook is its inability to re-imagine the material, to find something new, fresh or urgent to do with the Peter Pan myth. Lacking that, Spielberg should simply have remade the original story, straight, for this generation.

Peter Travers of Rolling Stone magazine felt it would "only appeal to the baby boomer generation" and highly criticized the sword-fighting choreography.

Hinson elaborated on crucial themes of children, adulthood, and loss of innocence. However, he said that Spielberg "was stuck too much in a theme park world".

The film was nominated for five categories at the 64th Academy Awards. I'm really proud of my work right up through Peter being hauled off in the parachute out the window, heading for Neverland.

I'm a little less proud of the Neverland sequences because I'm uncomfortable with that highly stylized world that today, of course, I would probably have done with live-action character work inside a completely digital set.

But we didn't have the technology to do it then, and my imagination only went as far as building physical sets and trying to paint trees blue and red.

The only snag was that all this happened just a few weeks before he was due to marry his childhood sweetheart back in Ireland.

Born early Thursday morning. So proud to be a father!! Retrieved 29 January — via Twitter. Retrieved 12 July Spin Media.

Retrieved 11 February Retrieved 22 March Categories : Living people births 21st-century guitarists 21st-century Irish male actors 21st-century Irish singers 21st-century male singers Irish guitarists Irish male film actors Irish male singers Irish male soap opera actors Irish male stage actors Irish male television actors Irish male guitarists Male actors from County Louth Musicians from County Louth People from Drogheda.

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Who Played Hook Who Played Hook James V. Sent from Internet Casinos Legal sold by Amazon US. I loved the lost boys in this. They were so dependent on Peter and had clearly missed him so much and the ending when he left again just Superlenny Gratis Guthaben Ohne Einzahlung my heart out. Jumanji [DVD] []. Sehen Sie weitere Produkte dieser Aktion. Wie man immer mehr zum "Erwachsenen" wird. The actors makes the best of it. Verkauft von: Amazon. Who Played Hook And huge part of the film's appeal wasn't just the late Robin William's performance as Peter Pan, but also the performances by the kids who played the Lost Boys. stars Robin Williams as Peter pan a grown up version though who goes back to never land after his children are kidnapped by Hook played by Dustin Hoffman​. Captain James Hook is the titular main antagonist in the film Hook. He was portrayed by Dustin Hoffman, who also played Mumbles in Dick Tracy and.

Who Played Hook Inhaltsverzeichnis

Amazon Business Kauf auf Rechnung. Habe ihn jetzt mit unseren kindern geschaut und auch sie finden ihn klasse :. Even a documentary all about the reason its director doesn't talk much about it would have pleased me as it is a little more left field Heartsd usual classic he makes. It was like everything she wanted in a film, wrapped up Kasyno Internetowe Za Darmo a ball of pixy dust and left to run wild in her imagination. As an adult, I have grown to love this movie. With that said, I also saw a film that has a sort of innocence that we don't see in family films now. Who Played Hook

The young Robert Hooke was fascinated by observation, mechanical works, and drawing. He dismantled a brass clock and built a wooden replica that reportedly worked "well enough".

He made his own drawing materials from coal, chalk, and ruddle iron ore. On his father's death in , Robert inherited 40 pounds.

Richard Busby. Hooke quickly mastered Latin and Greek, [13] studied Hebrew some, mastered Euclid's Elements , [13] learned to play the organ , [ citation needed ] and began his lifelong study of mechanics.

Hooke may have been among a group of students that Busby taught in parallel to the school's main courses. Contemporary accounts call him "not much seen" in school, apparently true of others positioned similarly.

Busby, an ardent and outspoken royalist, was by all accounts [ citation needed ] trying to preserve the nascent spirit of scientific inquiry that had begun to flourish in the reign of Charles I but which was at odds with the literal Biblical teachings of the Protectorate.

To Busby and his select students, the Anglican Church was a framework to support the spirit of inquiry into God's work: those who were able to do so were destined by God to explore and study His creation.

In , Hooke who had also undertaken a course of twenty lessons on the organ secured a chorister's place at Christ Church , Oxford. There he met the natural philosopher Robert Boyle , and gained employment as his assistant from about to , constructing, operating, and demonstrating Boyle's "machina Boyleana" or air pump.

Hooke himself characterised his Oxford days as the foundation of his lifelong passion for science, and the friends he made there were of paramount importance to him throughout his career, particularly Christopher Wren.

Wadham was then under the guidance of John Wilkins , who had a profound impact on Hooke and those around him.

Wilkins was also a Royalist, and acutely conscious of the turmoil and uncertainty of the times. There was a sense of urgency in preserving the scientific work which they perceived as being threatened by the Protectorate.

Wilkins' "philosophical meetings" in his study were clearly important, though few records survive except for the experiments Boyle conducted in and published in This group went on to form the nucleus of the Royal Society.

Hooke developed an air pump for Boyle's experiments based on the pump of Ralph Greatorex , which was considered, in Hooke's words, "too gross to perform any great matter.

It has been suggested that Hooke probably made the observations and may well have developed the mathematics of Boyle's law.

A chance surviving copy of Willis's pioneering De anima brutorum , a gift from the author, was chosen by Hooke from Wilkins' library on his death as a memento at John Tillotson 's invitation.

This book is now in the Wellcome Library. The book and its inscription in Hooke's hand are a testament to the lasting influence of Wilkins and his circle on the young Hooke.

The Royal Society was founded in , and in April the society debated a short tract on the rising of water in slender glass pipes, in which Hooke reported that the height water rose was related to the bore of the pipe due to what is now termed capillary action.

His explanation of this phenomenon was subsequently published in Micrography Observ. On 5 November , Sir Robert Moray proposed that a Curator be appointed to furnish the society with Experiments, and this was unanimously passed with Hooke being named.

His appointment was made on 12 November, with thanks recorded to Dr. Boyle for releasing him to the Society's employment.

In , Sir John Cutler settled an annual gratuity of fifty pounds on the Society for the founding of a Mechanick Lecture , [b] and the Fellows appointed Hooke to this task.

Hooke's role at the Royal Society was to demonstrate experiments from his own methods or at the suggestion of members.

Among his earliest demonstrations were discussions of the nature of air, the implosion of glass bubbles which had been sealed with comprehensive hot air, and demonstrating that the Pabulum vitae and flammae were one and the same.

He also demonstrated that a dog could be kept alive with its thorax opened, provided air was pumped in and out of its lungs, and noting the difference between venous and arterial blood.

Instruments were devised to measure a second of arc in the movement of the sun or other stars, to measure the strength of gunpowder , and in particular an engine to cut teeth for watches, much finer than could be managed by hand, an invention which was, by Hooke's death, in constant use.

In and , Hooke produced his microscopy observations, subsequently collated in Micrographia in Hooke received the degree of "Doctor of Physic" in December There is a widely reported but seemingly incorrect story that Dr Hooke corresponded with Thomas Newcomen in connection with Newcomen's invention of the steam engine.

Jenkins points out a number of errors in Robison's article, and questions whether the correspondent might in fact have been Newton, whom Hooke is known to have corresponded with, the name being misread as Newcomen.

A search by Mr. H W Dickinson of Hooke's papers held by the Royal Society, which had been bound together in the middle of the 18th century, i.

Jenkins concluded In the intervening years since no such evidence has been found, but the story persists. For instance, in a book published in it is said that in a letter dated Hooke did suggest that Newcomen use condensing steam to drive the piston.

Reputedly, [ citation needed ] Hooke was a staunch friend and ally. In his early training at Wadham College , he was among ardent royalists , particularly Christopher Wren.

Hooke contended that Oldenburg had leaked details of Hooke's watch escapement. On the other hand, as the Royal Society's curator of experiments, Hooke was tasked to demonstrate many ideas sent in to the Society.

Some evidence suggests that Hooke subsequently assumed credit for some of these ideas. Immensely busy, Hook let many of his own ideas remain undeveloped, although others he patented.

Perhaps more significantly, Hooke and Isaac Newton disputed over credit for certain breakthroughs in physical science, including gravitation, astronomy, and optics.

And as the Royal Society's president, Newton allegedly destroyed or failed to preserve the only known portrait of Hooke.

None of this should distract from Hooke's inventiveness, his remarkable experimental facility, and his capacity for hard work. His ideas about gravitation, and his claim of priority for the inverse square law, are outlined below.

He was granted a large number of patents for inventions and refinements in the fields of elasticity, optics, and barometry.

The Royal Society's Hooke papers, rediscovered in , [24] after disappearing when Newton took over may open up a modern reassessment. Much has been written about the unpleasant side of Hooke's personality, starting with comments by his first biographer, Richard Waller, that Hooke was "in person, but despicable" and "melancholy, mistrustful, and jealous.

For example, Arthur Berry said that Hooke "claimed credit for most of the scientific discoveries of the time. The publication of Hooke's diary in [30] revealed other sides of the man that 'Espinasse, in particular, has detailed carefully.

She writes that "the picture which is usually painted of Hooke as a morose and envious recluse is completely false. Hooke often met Christopher Wren , with whom he shared many interests, and had a lasting friendship with John Aubrey.

Hooke's diaries also make frequent reference to meetings at coffeehouses and taverns, and to dinners with Robert Boyle.

He took tea on many occasions with his lab assistant, Harry Hunt. Within his family, Hooke took both a niece and a cousin into his home, teaching them mathematics.

He never married, but his diary records that he had sexual relations with his niece, Grace, and several of his housekeepers. He at one point records that one of these housekeepers gave birth to a girl, but doesn't note the paternity of the child.

In , Hooke discovered the law of elasticity which bears his name and which describes the linear variation of tension with extension in an elastic spring.

He first described this discovery in the anagram "ceiiinosssttuv", whose solution he published in [32] as "Ut tensio, sic vis" meaning "As the extension, so the force.

A bitter dispute between Hooke and Christiaan Huygens on the priority of this invention was to continue for centuries after the death of both; but a note dated 23 June in the Hooke Folio see External links below , describing a demonstration of a balance-controlled watch before the Royal Society, has been held to favour Hooke's claim.

It is interesting [ to whom? This was a method sometimes used by scientists, such as Hooke, Huygens, Galileo , and others, to establish priority for a discovery without revealing details.

Hooke became Curator of Experiments in to the newly founded Royal Society, and took responsibility for experiments performed at its weekly meetings.

This was a position he held for over 40 years. While this position kept him in the thick of science in Britain and beyond, it also led to some heated arguments with other scientists, such as Huygens see above and particularly with Isaac Newton and the Royal Society's Henry Oldenburg.

On 8 July , Hooke observed the nodal patterns associated with the modes of vibration of glass plates. He ran a bow along the edge of a glass plate covered with flour, and saw the nodal patterns emerge.

While many of his contemporaries believed in the aether as a medium for transmitting attraction or repulsion between separated celestial bodies, Hooke argued for an attracting principle of gravitation in Micrographia Hooke's Royal Society lecture on gravity added two further principles: that all bodies move in straight lines till deflected by some force and that the attractive force is stronger for closer bodies.

It is founded on the following positions. That all the heavenly bodies have not only a gravitation of their parts to their own proper centre, but that they also mutually attract each other within their spheres of action.

That all bodies having a simple motion, will continue to move in a straight line, unless continually deflected from it by some extraneous force, causing them to describe a circle, an ellipse, or some other curve.

That this attraction is so much the greater as the bodies are nearer. As to the proportion in which those forces diminish by an increase of distance, I own I have not discovered it Hooke's Gresham lecture explained that gravitation applied to "all celestial bodies" and added the principles that the gravitating power decreases with distance and that in the absence of any such power bodies move in straight lines.

Hooke published his ideas about the "System of the World" again in somewhat developed form in , as an addition to "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations".

Hooke's statements up to made no mention, however, that an inverse square law applies or might apply to these attractions.

Hooke's gravitation was also not yet universal, though it approached universality more closely than previous hypotheses.

On these two aspects, Hooke stated in "Now what these several degrees [of gravitational attraction] are I have not yet experimentally verified" indicating that he did not yet know what law the gravitation might follow ; and as to his whole proposal: "This I only hint at present", "having my self many other things in hand which I would first compleat, and therefore cannot so well attend it" i.

In November , Hooke initiated a remarkable exchange of letters with Newton [42] of which the full text is now published.

Newton's reply offered "a fansy of my own" about a terrestrial experiment not a proposal about celestial motions which might detect the Earth's motion, by the use of a body first suspended in air and then dropped to let it fall.

The main point was to indicate how Newton thought the falling body could experimentally reveal the Earth's motion by its direction of deviation from the vertical, but he went on hypothetically to consider how its motion could continue if the solid Earth had not been in the way on a spiral path to the centre.

Hooke disagreed with Newton's idea of how the body would continue to move. In , when the first book of Newton's Principia was presented to the Royal Society, Hooke claimed that he had given Newton the "notion" of "the rule of the decrease of Gravity, being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the Center".

At the same time according to Edmond Halley 's contemporary report Hooke agreed that "the Demonstration of the Curves generated therby" was wholly Newton's.

A recent assessment about the early history of the inverse square law is that "by the late s," the assumption of an "inverse proportion between gravity and the square of distance was rather common and had been advanced by a number of different people for different reasons".

On the other hand, Newton did accept and acknowledge, in all editions of the Principia , that Hooke but not exclusively Hooke had separately appreciated the inverse square law in the solar system.

One of the contrasts between the two men was that Newton was primarily a pioneer in mathematical analysis and its applications as well as optical experimentation, while Hooke was a creative experimenter of such great range, that it is not surprising to find that he left some of his ideas, such as those about gravitation, undeveloped.

This in turn makes it understandable how in , decades after the deaths of both Newton and Hooke, Alexis Clairaut , mathematical astronomer eminent in his own right in the field of gravitational studies, made his assessment after reviewing what Hooke had published on gravitation.

Hooke made tremendously important contributions to the science of timekeeping, being intimately involved in the advances of his time; the introduction of the pendulum as a better regulator for clocks, the balance spring to improve the timekeeping of watches, and the proposal that a precise timekeeper could be used to find the longitude at sea.

In , according to his autobiographical notes, Hooke began to acquaint himself with astronomy, through the good offices of John Ward. Hooke applied himself to the improvement of the pendulum and in or , he began to improve on pendulum mechanisms, studying the work of Giovanni Riccioli , and going on to study both gravitation and the mechanics of timekeeping.

Henry Sully, writing in Paris in , described the anchor escapement as an admirable invention of which Dr. Hooke, formerly professor of geometry in Gresham College at London, was the inventor.

Hooke recorded that he conceived of a way to determine longitude then a critical problem for navigation , and with the help of Boyle and others he attempted to patent it.

In the process, Hooke demonstrated a pocket-watch of his own devising, fitted with a coil spring attached to the arbour of the balance.

Hooke's ultimate failure to secure sufficiently lucrative terms for the exploitation of this idea resulted in its being shelved, and evidently caused him to become more jealous of his inventions.

Hooke developed the balance spring independently of and at least 5 years before Christiaan Huygens , [56] who published his own work in Journal de Scavans in February Hooke's book Micrographia , describing observations with microscopes and telescopes , as well as original work in biology , contains the earliest of an observed microorganism, a microfungus Mucor.

Micrographia also contains Hooke's, or perhaps Boyle and Hooke's, ideas on combustion. Hooke's experiments led him to conclude that combustion involves a substance that is mixed with air, a statement with which modern scientists would agree, but that was not understood widely, if at all, in the seventeenth century.

Hooke went on to conclude that respiration also involves a specific component of the air. One of the observations in Micrographia was of fossil wood , the microscopic structure of which he compared to ordinary wood.

This led him to conclude that fossilised objects like petrified wood and fossil shells, such as Ammonites , were the remains of living things that had been soaked in petrifying water laden with minerals.

Charles Lyell wrote the following in his Principles of Geology His treatise One of the more-challenging problems tackled by Hooke was the measurement of the distance to a star other than the Sun.

The star chosen was Gamma Draconis and the method to be used was parallax determination. After several months of observing, in , Hooke believed that the desired result had been achieved.

It is now known that Hooke's equipment was far too imprecise to allow the measurement to succeed. Hooke's activities in astronomy extended beyond the study of stellar distance.

His Micrographia contains illustrations of the Pleiades star cluster as well as of lunar craters. He performed experiments to study how such craters might have formed.

A lesser-known contribution, however one of the first of its kind, was Hooke's scientific model of human memory. Hooke in a lecture to the Royal Society proposed a mechanistic model of human memory, which would bear little resemblance to the mainly philosophical models before it.

It has been speculated that this work saw little review as the printing was done in small batches in a post-Newtonian age of science and was most likely deemed out of date by the time it was published.

Further interfering with its success was contemporary memory psychologists' rejection of immaterial souls, which Hooke invoked to some degree in regards to the processes of attention, encoding and retrieval.

Hooke's collaboration with Christopher Wren also included St Paul's Cathedral , whose dome uses a method of construction conceived by Hooke. Hooke also participated in the design of the Pepys Library , which held the manuscripts of Samuel Pepys ' diaries, the most frequently cited eyewitness account of the Great Fire of London.

Hooke and Wren both being keen astronomers, the Monument was designed to serve a scientific function as a telescope for observing transits , though Hooke's characteristically precise measurements after completion showed that the movement of the column in the wind made it unusable for this purpose.

The legacy of this can be observed in the construction of the spiral staircase , which has no central column, and in the observation chamber which remains in place below ground level.

In the reconstruction after the Great Fire, Hooke proposed redesigning London's streets on a grid pattern with wide boulevards and arteries, a pattern subsequently used in the renovation of Paris , Liverpool, and many American cities.

This proposal was thwarted by arguments over property rights, as property owners were surreptitiously shifting their boundaries. Hooke was in demand to settle many of these disputes, due to his competence as a surveyor and his tact as an arbitrator.

For an extensive study of Hooke's architectural work, see the book by Cooper. No authenticated portrait of Robert Hooke exists. This situation has sometimes been attributed to the heated conflicts between Hooke and Newton, although Hooke's biographer Allan Chapman rejects as a myth the claims that Newton or his acolytes deliberately destroyed Hooke's portrait.

German antiquarian and scholar Zacharias Conrad von Uffenbach visited the Royal Society in and his account of his visit specifically mentions him being shown the portraits of 'Boyle and Hoock' which were said to be good likenesses , but while Boyle's portrait survives, Hooke's has evidently been lost.

When the move to new quarters finally was made a few years later, in , Hooke's Royal Society portrait went missing, and has yet to be found.

Two contemporary written descriptions of Hooke's appearance have survived. The first was recorded by his close friend John Aubrey , who described Hooke in middle age and at the height of his creative powers:.

He is but of midling stature, something crooked, pale faced, and his face but little below, but his head is lardge, his eie full and popping, and not quick; a grey eie.

He haz a delicate head of haire, browne, and of an excellent moist curle. He is and ever was temperate and moderate in dyet, etc. The second is a rather unflattering description of Hooke as an old man, written by Richard Waller:.

As to his Person he was but despicable, being very crooked, tho' I have heard from himself, and others, that he was strait till about 16 Years of Age when he first grew awry, by frequent practising, with a Turn-Lath He was always very pale and lean, and laterly nothing but Skin and Bone, with a Meagre Aspect, his Eyes grey and full, with a sharp ingenious Look whilst younger; his nose but thin, of a moderate height and length; his Mouth meanly wide, and upper lip thin; his Chin sharp, and Forehead large; his Head of a middle size.

He wore his own Hair of a dark Brown colour, very long and hanging neglected over his Face uncut and lank Time magazine published a portrait, supposedly of Hooke, on 3 July However, when the source was traced by Ashley Montagu , it was found to lack a verifiable connection to Hooke.

Moreover, Montagu found that two contemporary written descriptions of Hooke's appearance agreed with one another, but that neither matched the Time' s portrait.

In , historian Lisa Jardine claimed that a recently discovered portrait was of Hooke, [76] but this claim was disproved by William Jensen of the University of Cincinnati.

In , amateur history painter Rita Greer embarked on a self-funded project to memorialise Hooke. Her project aimed to produce credible images of him, both painted and drawn, that she believes fit the descriptions of him by his contemporaries John Aubrey and Richard Waller.

In Larry Griffing championed the position that a contemporary portrait by famed painter Mary Beale of an unknown sitter and referred to as "Portrait of a Mathematician" was actually Hooke, noting that the physical features of the sitter in the portrait match his.

The figure points to a drawing of elliptical motion which appears to match an unpublished manuscript created by Hooke.

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